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One of my favourite go-to articles on fats is this one by Kurt Harris:

- http://highsteaks.com/archevore-archive-there-is-no-such-thing-as-a-macronutrient-part-i-fats-kurt-g-harris-md/

My summary:

The takeaway is grass-fed ruminants (beef/lamb) are best as they contain the perfect combination of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, but grain-fed is still pretty good. 

Chicken/etc is not ideal as it is far more sensitive to the diet of the specific animal, best bet is pastured but factory chicken should be left alone.

As for oils, tropical plants (coconut/palm oils) contain a good balance of nutrients, but avoid temperate (nut/seed oils) as they are effectively poison.


« Last Edit: 16 August, 2014, 10:16 AM by Ash Simmonds »






http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23674795

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Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence.

Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):294-302. doi: 10.3945/an.113.003657.
Lawrence GD.
Source: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY.

Abstract
Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ?3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking.





http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23674795

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Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence.


Full paper: http://advances.nutrition.org/content/4/3/294.full

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Fatty acids involved in atherogenesis and CVD

Linoleic acid makes LDL more susceptible to lipid peroxidation and subsequent deposition of the oxidized LDL in macrophages lining the arteries

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Because saturated fats are not susceptible to lipid peroxidation, they have not been found to be involved in these mechanisms. This begs the question of how dietary polyunsaturated oils seem to lower the risk of CAD, even though many studies have shown no such effect.

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Human food preferences tend to favor foods with both fats and sugar (56), which complicates any attempts to correlate saturated fats with disease. Sugars readily undergo oxidation, with fructose generally getting oxidized many times faster than glucose, whereas sucrose is relatively resistant to oxidation

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Lipid peroxidation is invoked as a mechanism for numerous adverse health effects, such as aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, and tissue necrosis. The greater in vivo susceptibility of ?6 PUFAs relative to the ?3 PUFAs, has placed the spotlight on these fatty acids as contributing to or exacerbating many ailments

...

Predominantly SFAs in the diet result in far less inflammation than diets with either ?3 or ?6 PUFAs

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Because dietary saturated fats do not promote inflammation, it may be wiser to minimize ?6 PUFAs and consume more SFAs to reduce various types of inflammation; most sources of MUFAs contain significant amounts of PUFAs as well. There have been few scientific studies along these lines because of the misguided concern that saturated fats, even those from vegetable sources such as palm and coconut oil, would be detrimental to one’s health.

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A study of chemically induced mammary tumors in rats found that ?6 PUFAs promoted tumor proliferation, whereas saturated fats or ?3 PUFAs did not promote tumors as much or even suppressed tumors

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there is evidence to the contrary that high intake of ?6 relative to ?3 PUFAs increases cancer risks

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Lipid peroxides are also known to promote chemically induced tumors, and PUFAs are highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation.

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Investigators often seem to have a particular bias against saturated fats. One report showed that red meat alone was not significantly associated with colorectal cancer ... Processed meats were significantly associated ... The authors then combined the data for red meat and processed meat to give a significant association and concluded that red and processed meat are positively associated with colorectal cancer.

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Others have found no association of red meat and only a very weak association of processed meat with breast cancer and prostate cancer.

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A recent meta-analysis reviewed 20 studies with >1 million subjects and found that red meat was not associated with CAD events ... In contrast, processed meats were associated with increased incidence of CAD ... This indicates that saturated fat per se is not increasing CAD events, but other factors are, such as preservatives used in processed meats or other dietary substances that are being consumed in conjunction with processed meats.

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Claims that tropical oils with a high SFA content increase the risk of CAD lack clear scientific evidence to that effect. Indeed, countries with high intake of tropical oils have some of the lowest rates of heart disease in the world.

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The shorter chain SFA in milk (C4–C12) are not only metabolized rapidly for energy in infants, but have been found to have important antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immune response functions.

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Lauric acid, which is present in milk and the most abundant fatty acid in coconut oil, is effective in preventing tooth decay and plaque buildup.

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There has been a spate of recent publications in the biomedical literature that question the negative perception that dairy fats are bad for health.

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From a physiological viewpoint, there is no reason to believe that replacing fat in the diet with carbohydrate at a constant caloric intake will improve the serum lipid profile significantly. Indeed, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet causes an increase in serum triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles, which are more strongly associated with CAD than serum total cholesterol or LDL-C.

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Young children who consumed more fruit juice than their peers were shorter in stature and had greater BMI than their peers who drank less fruit juice.

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The rates of childhood obesity have skyrocketed since the introduction of low-fat milk, although high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) became omnipresent in foods at the same time and is more strongly associated with obesity than dietary fat.

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Fructose is 1 dietary constituent that is consistently found to have adverse health consequences, and the larger the proportion of fructose is in the diet, the more formidable the effect. The adverse effects of fructose that have been documented include increased serum triglycerides, particularly in men; increased serum uric acid, which is associated with gout and hypertension; increased lipid peroxidation and increased oxidation of LDL; increased oxidative stress in animal models; greater risk of the development of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and CVD risk; increased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; and increased systemic inflammation and associated renal disease.

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It turns out that a high level of fructose in the diet increases plasma triglycerides, which leads to not only increased levels of VLDL and small, dense LDL particles, but increased levels of oxidized LDL, insulin resistance, and other metabolic consequences linked to metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia.

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Conclusions

Saturated fats are benign with regard to inflammatory effects, as are the MUFAs. The meager effect that saturated fats have on serum cholesterol levels when modest but adequate amounts of polyunsaturated oils are included in the diet, and the lack of any clear evidence that saturated fats are promoting any of the conditions that can be attributed to PUFA makes one wonder how saturated fats got such a bad reputation in the health literature. The influence of dietary fats on serum cholesterol has been overstated, and a physiological mechanism for saturated fats causing heart disease is still missing.

Various aldehydes produced in the oxidation of PUFAs, as well as sugars, are known to initiate or augment several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, asthma, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction. Saturated fats per se may not be responsible for many of the adverse health effects with which they have been associated; instead, oxidation of PUFAs in those foods may be the cause of any associations that have been found. Consequently, the dietary recommendations to restrict saturated fats in the diet should be revised to reflect differences in handling before consumption, e.g., dairy fats are generally not heated to high temperatures. It is time to reevaluate the dietary recommendations that focus on lowering serum cholesterol and to use a more holistic approach to dietary policy.





http://profgrant.com/2013/08/02/saturated-fat-is-bad-for-you-really/

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WHAT I THINK WE SHOULD THINK ABOUT WITH FAT:

* Fat contains loads of calories
* Fat is an essential nutrient
* Highly processed fats are inflammatory
* Good quality whole foods, including loads of vegetables, are good for you.  Their fat content appears not to harm you.
* Omega 3 fats are good for you. These are poly unsaturated so if that is what they are talking about then great.  But these guys go on to talk specifically about manufactured seed oils – these are not good.
* In high carb, insulin-provoking diets, fat seems to add to the insulin response.  This seems to be worse in people who are insulin resistant.  By itself, fat is metabolically benign, at least as far as insulin response is concerned. A good reason to avoid the standard American diet.
* Processed meats are likely to be bad for you.  I’m not sure if it’s the actual fat and I’m not sure what the mechanisms might be – inflammatory? We may never know if they are for sure because no one is likely to run an experimental trial where people get a long dose of processed meat.

Take home messages:

* Don’t believe everything you see in a scientific paper.  Sometimes they go past the evidence.
* Carry on eating fat, hopefully in the absence of processed and simple carbs as they may harm you in combination.



http://www.reddit.com/r/keto/comments/1s1p0j/why_you_should_use_buttercoconut_oil_instead_of/

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Why you should use butter/coconut oil instead of other oils - Copy and paste of an article.

I work with lots of extreme diabetics who can eat more than 60g protein a day (about 20g at each meal). In order to become keto-adapted, you need to turn up the healthy fat intake to push yourself over the adaptation divide as quickly as possible. If you don’t like fatty cuts of meat, you can add medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to your diet.

Medium-Chained-Triglycerides (MCT) are different than Long-chained-triglycerides. MCT are absorbed more like carbohydrates and are used and burned quickly by the body and not stored in the fat cells and any extra are converted into ketones. This is why I am very specific even about the salad dressings my clients use. It is always best to make your own dressing (not to mention how easy it is too), but more so because I have them make it out of MCT oil rather than olive oil (or other vegetable oils) which are a long chained triglyceride and will not turn into ketones for fat burning.

MCTs passively diffuse from the GI tract to the portal system (longer fatty acids are absorbed into the lymphatic system) without requirement for modification like long-chain fatty acids or very-long-chain fatty acids. In addition, MCTs do not require bile salts for digestion. Patients that have malnutrition or mal-absorption syndromes are treated with MCTs because they do not require energy for absorption, utilization, or storage.

MCT will speed up the ketone production process. In rare occasions, MCT oils have caused nausea in some of my clients if they take too much of it, so start out slowly.

MCT oils

 * Organic butter: Fresh butter is one of the best sources of fat and medium chain triglycerides, according to nutritional experts and authors of “Nourishing Traditions,” Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD. Butter contains about 12 to 15 percent short and medium chain fatty acids, according to the authors. This is the type of fat that can be used quickly by the human body for energy. Fresh butter, according to “Nourishing Traditions,” has both antifungal and antitumor properties
 * Coconut oil
 * MCT Oil


I'm wondering if my already extremely high fat intake has me well adjusted for MCTs, I consume grass-fed butter by the bucketload which is already a reasonable source of MCTs.

Either way, I won't be OD'ing on it, I still think the idea of consuming something in excess that wasn't really so available to us throughout evolution is probably a bad idea, and we may simply not know some of the deleterious effects as yet - thus far I can only find nausea and diahrreah as cons to MCT which is usually enough of a reason to think I shouldn't consume it, but those side-effects are the same for any kind of fat intake more than you're used to, for which most people are accustomed to relatively low fat. It takes a while to get to my levels of fat eating.

FWIW, here's an interesting overview of benefits (I've paraphrased/bulleted below): http://www.nutritionreview.org/library/mcts.php

Yes this is confirmation bias, but you can be sure I'll also be researching anything detrimental before I up my MCTs too much - if anyone knows off the top of their head feel free to post.
 
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 - MCTs are more rapidly absorbed by the body and more quickly metabolized (burned) as fuel. 
 - instead of being stored as fat, the calories contained in MCTs are very efficiently converted into fuel for immediate use by organs and muscles. 
 - do not require the presence of carnitine, as do LCTs 
 - increased energy from consumption of MCTs to the rapid formation of ketone bodies. 
 - MCTs are thus a good choice for anyone who has increased energy needs, as following major surgery, during normal or stunted growth, to enhance athletic performance, and to counteract the decreased energy production that results from aging. 
 - MCTs can increase physical endurance in animal studies. 
 - MCTs are not stored in fat deposits in the body as much as LCTs. 
 - MCTs have been shown to enhance thermogenesis (i.e., fat burning). 
 - MCT-fed rats lost significant weight, although their calorie consumption was the same as the lard-fed rats. 
 - fat deposits in rats fed diets high in MCTs were 23 percent less than in LCT-fed rats. 
 - Animal results have been supported by human trials. 
 - In both the lean and obese individuals, post-meal thermogenesis (fat burning) was enhanced after consuming MCTs. 
 - insulin profiles improved when MCTs comprised 24 percent of total consumed calories. 
 - using MCTs in weight loss programs to boost energy levels and increase fatty acid metabolism to aid in reducing fat deposits. 
 - MCTs have been shown to suppress appetite 
 - Caloric consumption was significantly lower on the high MCT diet. 
 - MCTs have a number of properties that may be beneficial in preventing atherosclerosis.   
 - MCTs have anti-coagulation effects 
 - MCTs lower serum cholesterol in rats 11 and calves 
 - MCTs have also been reported to act as antioxidants and reduce tissue requirements for Vitamin E. 
 - MCTs have a slight hypoglycemic (blood glucose-lowering) effect, and thus may be useful for diabetics 
 - “the life span [of experimental animals] is longer when the diet is richer in MCTs than LCTs.” 
 - In 1978 Sri Lanka reported a death rate due to ischemic heart disease of 1 per 1,000,000. The figures for most countries varied from 38.4 to 187.7. It is significant that the predominant dietary fat in Sri Lanka is coconut oil, which contains over 50 percent MCTs. 
 - MCTs could have a positive effect “on autoimmune reactions characteristic of the aging process.” 
 - MCTs have proven useful in treating a number of medical disorders that involve impaired or damaged lipid (fat) metabolism. 
 - These include: obstructive jaundice, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, regional enteritis, and malabsorption in neonates. 
 - The absorption of calcium and magnesium appears to be enhanced when the diet contains MCTs 
 - MCTs can be a useful addition to the diet of those suffering from any form of malnutrition or tissue wasting. 
 
 - The major adverse effect that is noted by beginning users of MCTs is nausea and gastric discomfort. This can be minimized or eliminated by starting with very small doses (i.e., about 1/4 teaspoon several times daily), and increasing the dose as tolerated.
 
------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
Notably, most of these benefits overlap with high ketone levels, which of course you can do simply with a high fat moderate protein diet.



Check out the meteoric rise of frankenfats in society:

http://supplementsos.com/blog/taking-health-advice-to-heart/


http://jsonline.com/more/business/us-butter-consumption-reaches-highest-level-in-40-years-b99146251z1-233963341.html

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U.S. butter consumption reaches highest level in 40 years

Driven by the movement toward food that contains natural ingredients as well as the foodie and gourmet cooking trends, butter consumption in the United States has reached its highest level in 40 years, dairy industry leaders say.

Where margarine and other spreads were once hailed as healthier alternatives to butter, the pendulum may have swung back in butter's favor.





Good Fats, Bad Fats: Separating Fact From Fiction



http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/17/health/a-lifelong-fight-against-trans-fat.html

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A Lifelong Fight Against Trans Fats - Fred Kummerow

In 1957, a fledgling nutrition scientist at the University of Illinois persuaded a hospital to give him samples of arteries from patients who had died of heart attacks.

When he analyzed them, he made a startling discovery. Not surprisingly, the diseased arteries were filled with fat — but it was a specific kind of fat. The artificial fatty acids called trans fats, which come from the hydrogen-treated oils used in processed foods like margarine, had crowded out other types of fatty acids.

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troubling amounts of artery-clogging plaque in pigs given a diet heavy in artificial fats.

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one of the first scientists to assert a link between heart disease and processed foods.

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five decades before the Food and Drug Administration decided that trans fats should be eliminated from the food supply, as it proposed in a rule issued last month.

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In the past two years, he has published four papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals, two of them devoted to another major culprit he has singled out as responsible for atherosclerosis, or the hardening of the arteries: an excess of polyunsaturated vegetable oils like soybean, corn and sunflower — exactly the types of fats Americans have been urged to consume for the past several decades.

The problem, he says, is not LDL, the “bad cholesterol” widely considered to be the major cause of heart disease. What matters is whether the cholesterol and fat residing in those LDL particles have been oxidized. (Technically, LDL is not cholesterol, but particles containing cholesterol, along with fatty acids and protein.)

“Cholesterol has nothing to do with heart disease, except if it’s oxidized,”

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the high temperatures used in commercial frying cause inherently unstable polyunsaturated oils to oxidize, and that these oxidized fatty acids become a destructive part of LDL particles. Even when not oxidized by frying, soybean and corn oils can oxidize inside the body.

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“You can have fine levels of LDL and still be in trouble if a lot of that LDL is oxidized,” Dr. Kummerow said.

This leads him to a controversial conclusion: that the saturated fat in butter, cheese and meats does not contribute to the clogging of arteries

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He calls eggs one of nature’s most perfect foods, something he has been preaching since the 1970s, when the consumption of cholesterol-laden eggs was thought to be a one-way ticket to heart disease.

“Eggs have all of the nine amino acids you need to build cells, plus important vitamins and minerals,” he said. “It’s crazy to just eat egg whites. Not a good practice at all.”

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“He had great difficulty getting funding because the heart disease prevention world strongly resisted the idea that trans fats were the problem,” Dr. Willett continued. “In their view, saturated fats were the big culprit in heart disease. Anything else was a distraction from that.”

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“What I really want is to see trans fats gone finally,” he said, “and for people to eat better and have a more accurate understanding of what really causes heart disease.”



http://www.tuitnutrition.com/2013/12/fat-tuesday-veg-oil-thought-experiment.html

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"Vegetable Oil" - A Thought Experiment

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How do they get gallons upon gallons of clear, odorless oil from things like corn and soybeans anyway?

If you are so inclined, check out this video on the manufacturing of canola oil. A few words of caution, though: First, you’ve got to ignore almost everything the narrator says for the first several seconds. There is no such thing as a “canola plant.” The word “canola” comes from Canadian oil, low acid. The plant this oil comes from is rapeseed, and in its natural form, it contains high amounts of a rather toxic substance called erucic acid.


How It's Made - Canola Oil Small | Large


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Canadian scientists a while back figured out a nifty way to breed a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid and that seems to have a favorable fatty acid profile, as far as food oils go: high in monounsaturated fat with a pretty good dose of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid. (The original name for this oil was LEAR oil, short for “low erucic acid rapeseed,” but I guess that was a marketing bust because they changed it to Canola, possibly to pay homage to those Canadian scientists, but more likely because LEAR oil sounds like something you might squirt onto the inner workings of an aircraft engine, and let’s face it, nobody wants WD40 in their salad dressing.) 

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Make sure you get a good look at the “wax byproduct” they use for making vegetable shortening (around 3:00). Take a gander, and then think twice before you buy anything with shortening on the label.

This whole video should pretty much terrify you. Pay attention to the extraction, heating, bleaching, filtering, solvent bath, etc. And then remember that you are eating this stuff.


How It's Made Vegetable oil Small | Large


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There’s a lot less in the way of bleaching, washing, and deodorizing, but it’s still a little unnerving. Check out how dark the sunflower oil is... Not exactly what you’re used to seeing in bottles at the store, huh?

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Also: be sure to listen around 4:00 – the narrator mentions that most vegetable oils are fragile. They do not hold up well when exposed to heat, light, or air.

These oils should be kept in DARK containers, preferably glass or metal. But what do we typically see in stores? Clear plastic bottles, so we can see the color of the oil and admire it.








 

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